ABC transporters are conserved across all kingdoms, named for their soluble periplasmic ABC transporter ATPase subunits, also known as ATP-binding proteins or Traffic ATPases. Inner membrane translocation is facilitated by associated permease subunits or domains. Periplasmic binding proteins facilitate ABC uptake systems. Export by some ABC transporters utilize a membrane fusion protein and an outer membrane factor (OMF) such as TolC.
ABC transporters import and export a variety of substrates in E. coli and humans, and include multidrug exporters and the diseased proteins of cystic firbrosis in humans. Import ABC transporters can include permease and periplasmic binding protein subunits; export ABC transporters can include permease proteins or domains that work with Outer membrane factor (OMF) proteins such as TolC and specific membrane-fusion proteins. Most ABC family ATPases supplying energy to the ABC permeases of multicomponent ABC transporters and some ABC family ATPases provide energy for non-transport processes.
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